By Allie Finn
Apple cider vinegar has become one of the darlings of natural skincare. With purported benefits like brighter, clearer skin, can you really blame anyone for risking smelling like a salad dressing if it means better skin? We've definitely done weirder things in the name of beauty. Even skincare experts agree that this fermented liquid can do great things for your skin. "Apple Cider Vinegar is not only famous as your favorite salad dressing and as a fat-melting elixir," says Dr. Michele Green, a board certified dermatologist and contributor on RealSelf.com. “It also has lots of skincare benefits.”
Because it can be found in your kitchen, the pantry staple may seem innocuous to try in a DIY skincare recipe. But before you go pouring the bottle all over your face, find out what dermatologists and skin experts have to say about the potential benefits and side effects as well as the best way to apply apple cider vinegar (hint: pouring the bottle all over your face is not recommended). Below, expert-approved ways to use apple cider vinegar for skin.
Type of ingredient: Exfoliator.
Main benefits: Balances pH, chemically exfoliates, and antibacterial.
Who should use it: In general, people with oily and acneic skin.
How often can you use it: The use of apple cider vinegar depends on what product and concentration you're using it in.
Works well with: Anti-inflammatories.
Don’t use with: Other acids, retinoids.
What is Apple Cider Vinegar?
Apple cider vinegar (aka ACV) is derived from apples and made by a process of fermentation. It comes in a liquid form and when used topically, it's commonly applied as a toner but can also act as a spot treatment. "[Apple cider vinegar] naturally has an acidic pH and can help balance the pH of the outer skin layer," says Joshua Zeichner, MD, Mount Sinai Hospital director of cosmetic and clinical research. As a vinegar, it contains acetic acid, which has antibacterial and keratolytic properties, and according to Green, it also contains malic acid, a gentle chemical exfoliant.
Benefits of Apple Cider Vinegar for Skin
Although there's not enough scientific evidence to support most of the claims made about apple cider vinegar, in theory, its properties could potentially provide the following skin benefits.
Balances the skin's pH: Because apple cider vinegar can help balance the pH of the outer skin layer, it keeps your skin functioning optimally—that is, doing things like producing the right amount of oil and dealing with acne-causing bacteria.
Exfoliates: "Apple cider vinegar contains malic acid, which is similar to alpha hydroxy acid," Green says. "Malic acid works well on acne-prone skin as it gently exfoliates to unclog the pores and eliminate bacteria."
Fights blackheads: According to Green, apple cider vinegar, which has anti-bacterial assets, can also be mixed with baking soda and water to exfoliate and help diminish blackheads.
Improves hyperpigmentation: Green says the malic acid in apple cider vinegar may be helpful for clearing up any hyperpigmentation issues, like dark spots. "Malic acid is known for its ability to decrease the production of melanin," she says. "Melanin is what gives the skin its pigmentation; therefore, malic acid is great at improving hyperpigmentation."
Side Effects of Apple Cider Vinegar
Because the chemical exfoliant malic acid is more mild than most AHAs, Green notes that its suitable for all skin types, but make sure to patch test any new products on your skin beforehand. Other components of apple cider vinegar can be irritating and drying to the skin, and studies show the acetic acid found in apple cider vinegar can cause chemical burns. An easy way to avoid this is just to dilute the formula more than is recommended if it ends up being too harsh.
How to Use It
Apple cider vinegar is very strong and, as we mentioned, can cause chemical burns. For this reason, it should always be diluted with water first before applying it to the skin—generally, a ratio of one part apple cider vinegar to four parts water.
Like many, Sophia Roe, a natural-beauty expert, holistic chef, and member of The Vitamin Shoppe Wellness Council, recommends using it as a toner. "It’s a beauty product–saturated world we live in," Roe explains, "So many are using multiple cleansers, masks, etc. Over time, this can disrupt the skin's natural defenses." Once that happens, you open your skin up to things like breakouts and dry skin. "Using ACV as a quick toner is a great way to restore the skin's natural defenses, remove excess dirt, and helps fight against acne,” she says.
The Best Products with ACV
Apple cider vinegar isn't the kind of ingredient that needs to be reserved for your face—in fact, this rinse from dpHUE is a beauty editor favorite. Although some choose to make their own rinses from ACV, this one is fortified with aloe and lavender to repair and cleanse the scalp. It also doesn't strip your scalp of the natural oils that keep it healthy.